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Species Chrysodeixis includens - Soybean Looper - Hodges#8890

Moth - Chrysodeixis includens Soybean Looper? - Chrysodeixis includens Soybean Looper ? - Chrysodeixis includens Soybean looper - Chrysodeixis includens Caterpillar - Chrysodeixis includens Caterpillar - Chrysodeixis includens Soybean looper - Chrysodeixis includens Soybean Looper Moth #2? - Chrysodeixis includens
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Noctuoidea (Owlet Moths and kin)
Family Noctuidae (Owlet Moths)
Subfamily Plusiinae (Looper Moths)
Tribe Argyrogrammatini
Genus Chrysodeixis
Species includens (Soybean Looper - Hodges#8890)
Hodges Number
8890
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858])
Plusia includens Walker, [1858]
Pseudoplusia includens
Autographa includens
* phylogenetic sequence #931170
Size
forewing length 13-18 mm (Pogue, 2005)(1)
wingspan 28-39 mm (Covell, 1984)(2)
larvae mature to 35 mm (NCSU)
Identification
Larvae - a green looper which may have pale green longitudinal stripes and black dots. The head is small and the body widens at the rear (NCSU).
Range
Common in the southeast and south central United States. Ranges as far north as Nova Scotia, southern Quebec and southern Ontario, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Known in the west from southern Colorado, southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico (Pogue, 2005).(1) This tropical moth often migrates far north in the spring and summer establishing breeding populations that are killed off with the freeze (Powell & Opler, 2009).(3)
Habitat
Fields, cultivated land.
Season
Adults fly April-November (Covell, 1984).(2)
Food
Larvae feed on a variety of plants (herbs), including soybeans, goldenrod, lettuce, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, brassicas (cabbage, kale, broccoli), pea, tobacco, and cocklebur (NCSU).
Remarks
Larvae can be a serious pest of crops, especially soybeans.
See Also
Lafontaine and Poole have found the following four differences between two species that are often confused - Chrysodeixis includens and Autographa precationis:
1. A. precationis has a distinct rusty-red coloration and lacks brassy reflections in the forewing, whereas C. includens has a buffy-brown forewing and has strong brassy reflections.
2. The reniform spot of A. precationis is surrounded by a thin white line that is absent in C. includens.
3. C. includens has a strong brass-colored patch between the reniform spot and the postmedial line that is missing in A. precationis.
4. C. includens has a distinct dark spot in the fringe of the outer margin that is absent in A. precationis.

See separate pinned images of A. precationis and Chrysodeixis includens at Canadian Forest Service. Also see other images of both species together for comparison (Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility).
Print References
Covell Jr., C. V. 1984. A field guide to the moths of eastern North America. pp. 155-156, pl.31 #15 (2)
Eichlin, T. D. & H. B. Cunningham 1978. The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico, emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology. USDA Tech. Bulletin 1567: 1-122 (PDF)(4)
Lafontaine J. D. & B. C. Schmidt 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America North of Mexico.(5)
Powell, J. A. & P. A. Opler 2009. Moths of Western North America. pl.49.26f; p.277(3)
Internet References
Moth Photographers Group - species page
NCSU - North Carolina State University fact sheet
live adult images (Larry Line, Maryland)
pinned adult images comparing P. includens and A. precationis (CBIF)
Works Cited
1.The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Michael G, Pogue. 2005. Magnolia Press Zootaxa 1032: 1–28.
2.Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America
Charles V. Covell, Jr. 2005.
3.Moths of Western North America
Powell and Opler. 2009. UC Press.
4.The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico, emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology
Thomas D. Eichlin, Hugh B. Cunningham. 1978. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1567: 1-121.
5.Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.
Donald J. Lafontaine, B. Christian Schmidt. 2010. ZooKeys 40: 1–239 .