Order Ephemeroptera - Mayflies
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)
Other Common Names
in angling/flyfishing, an adult mayfly (imago) is called a spinner; the winged pre-adult (subimago) is called a dun; and many species have common names(1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
The classification/nomenclature in the Guide generally follows Mayfly Central(2)
Explanation of Names
Greek ephemeros 'of/for a day; short-lived' + pteron 'wing' -- refers to the short-lived adults ["ephemeros" comes from epi 'upon' + hemera 'day']
MAYFLY: adults appear in large numbers in May
611 spp. in 59 genera of 21 families in our area(3)
; worldwide, ~3350 spp. in >440 genera of at least 42 families(4)(5)
; 300 spp. in se. US(6)
, 204 in the Carolinas(7)(8)
, 71 in FL(9)
Genera not yet in the Guide are listed in(10)
Overview of our fauna (* –taxa not yet in the guide)
): body delicate or "flimsy", varying from almost transparent to white, yellow, orange, green, brown, or black; thorax and abdomen bare, often shiny; legs slender, solid color; front legs often held forward and sometimes upward in front of head when at rest; forewings large, triangular, with many cross veins; hindwings much smaller than forewings (hindwings absent in some species); both wings usually transparent but sometimes patterned, held vertically and together above thorax when at rest
): wings cloudy in appearance, body dull and pubescent, with appendages somewhat shorter -- but otherwise similar to imago; pre-adults molt a final time to become adults
Nymph (usually called larva in mayflies): body elongate, flattened or cylindrical, usually greenish or brownish but color varies according to the type of food eaten; legs long; antennae short; abdomen with lateral plate-like gills and usually three long thin tail projections (cerci); some species have only two cerci
Very detailed general info in(9)
keys: NA, genera, larvae & adults(11)
; ne. NA, genera, nymphs(12)
; Upper Midwest, families, nymphs(13)
; Florida, nymphs(14)
worldwide and throughout NA; for ranges of nearctic spp., see(22)(2)(23)
most nymphs develop in streams and rivers that are well-oxygenated and relatively free of pollution; some species develop in lakes or ponds, usually in shallow water where the oxygen content is highest
adults may be found on vegetation near water, and are attracted to lights
some emerge in late April (earlier in the south) but the greatest numbers first appear in May, and adults may be seen until September in the north; later, and perhaps around the year, in the far south
nymphs feed on pieces of organic matter such as plant material or algae and debris that accumulates on rocks or other substrates in flowing water (predation recorded in some)
adults have no functional mouthparts and do not feed
Mating and oviposition. Adult males gather in mid-air swarms, usually 5-15 metres above the ground; females fly into the swarm, and mating occurs in flight. Females deposit eggs while flying low over the water, or by dipping the abdomen into the water; some species submerge themselves and lay eggs underwater.
. Mayflies are hemimetabolous
, that is, they undergo incomplete metamorphosis
, a form of simple metamorphosis, and represent the only insect group whose members molt in winged condition. Nymphs
) develop through several (perhaps dozens) stages (instars
) by molting. The number of molts varies depending on species, temperature, and water conditions. Mature nymphs swim to water surface or crawl onto rocks or plants, then molt into winged subadults (subimagos
) which fly to nearby plants and molt again into adults (called imagoes
). Adult lifespan ranges from 1.5 hours to two weeks; most adults live 48-72 hrs.
Adults and nymphs are an important source of food for fish and other aquatic wildlife. Anglers often use mayflies as bait.
adults hold their wings together horizontally over the abdomen, and hugged closed to the body
nymphs have filamentous gills (not plate-like), and usually have two cerci (not three)
|5.||Global diversity of mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta) in freshwater|
Barber-James, H.M., Gattolliat, J.L., Sartori, M. & Hubbard, M.D. 2008. Hydrobiologia, 595: 339–350.
|6.||The mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the southeastern United States|
Mccafferty W.P., Lenat D.R., Jacobus L.M., Meyer M.D. 2010. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 136: 221-233.
|7.||Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of North Carolina and South Carolina: An update|
M.L. Pescador, D.R. Lenat, M.D. Hubbard. 1999. Florida Entomologist 82(2): 316-332.
|9.||The Mayflies of Florida: Revised edition|
Berner L., Pescador M.L. 1988. University Presses of Florida. 431 pp.
|11.||Aquatic Insects of North America|
R. W. Merritt, K. W. Cummins, M.B. Berg. 2008. Kendall/Hunt.
|12.||Freshwater macroinvertebrates of Northeastern North America|
Peckarsky, B. L., P. Fraissinet, M. A. Penton, and D. J. Conklin, Jr. 1990. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
|13.||Guide to aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Upper Midwest|
Bouchard R.W., Jr. 2004. Water Resources Center, U. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 208 pp.
|14.||Guide to the mayfly (Ephemeroptera) nymphs of Florida|
Pescador M.L., Richard B.A. 2004. Dept Envir. Prot., Div. Water Resource Management, Tallahassee. 168 pp.
|15.||Aquatic Insects of California|
Robert L. Usinger, Editor. 1956. University of California Press.
|24.||Ephemeroptera of South America (Aquatic Biodiversity of Latin America Series, Vol. 2.)|
Dominguez E., Molineri C., Pescador M.L., Hubbard M.D., Nieto C. 2006. Pensoft Publishers. 646 pp.
|25.||The mayflies of Europe (Ephemeroptera)|
Bauernfeind E., Soldán T. 2012. Brill Academic Publishers. 781 pp.