Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Oedipoda xanthoptera H. Burmeister, 1838. Type locality: Carolina
Oedipoda carinata Scudder, 1869. Type locality: one female in collection of American Entomological Society had "no locality"; also Scudder states - "I have specimens in my own collection from Iowa".
Tomonotus carinatus (Scudder) C. Thomas, 1873
Tomonotus xanthoptera (Burmeister) C. Thomas, 1873
Tomonotus sulphureus carinatus (Scudder) C. Thomas, 1876
Arphia crepusculum Saussure, 1884. Type locality: Dallas County, Iowa
Arphia xanthoptera (Burmeister) Saussure, 1884
Arphia xanthoptera carinata (Scudder) Blatchley, 1920
Males: 31-38 mm, Females: 36-46 mm
One of largest of its genus, typically dark, usually has yellow hindwings. Un-cut crested pronotum is distinctive as is size (in east), and hind tibiae are usually very dark. Of late season occurrence.
A. sulphurea and A. conspersa are smaller, mostly occur as adults in spring and early summer, are usually paler in color, and have pronotal crest low, have the dark band of the hind wings narrower, and the hind tibiae are usually pale yellowish or tan to bluish. The second has hind wings pale translucent, and often orange or pink as well as yellow. A. conspersa occurs with A. xanthoptera only at the later's western limits. A. sulphurea has the "forehead" somewhat produced and more square than rounded profile, with the front if the fastigium very narrow.
A. pseudonietana, mostly found further west, is typically even darker in color with pronotal crest low, and with wings usually bright orange red to red. The two species may hybridize where they meet, as apparent intermediates sometimes are found.
A. granulata occurs mostly on the coastal plain from North Carolina southward through Florida, and west just into Texas. It has a lower (though still somewhat arched) pronotal crest, can be seen as adult from spring to frost (or year-round in the far south), and has usually paler bluish hind tibiae.
A. simplex occurs mostly in spring, is often even larger in size, usually speckled and/or with pale stripes on sides, with hind tibiae pale (usually blue) with a dark subacial ring). Wings are pale yellow to orange with a very narrow dark band and long narrow spur. The head is usually somewhat produced and squared at the "forehead" as apposed to rounded, with the fastigium very narrow at the front. on the southern Plains and Prairies it often occurs in the same areas as A. xanthoptera, but A. simplex is usually gone by the time A. xanthoptera starts flying.
Eastern and central United States
dry fields, prairies, open woods
Overwinters as eggs laid in soil. Hatches in spring and matures in summer. Adults typically July-November in much of range. August-September (Michigan). August-frost (North Carolina).
Males sing (crepitate) in flight, quite noticeable as yellow wings flash.
Not abundant enough to be of agricultural importance, apparently.