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Species Coleomegilla maculata - Spotted Lady Beetle

 
 
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Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a species complex.
By Krafsur, E.S. and J.J. Obrycki.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93(5): 1156-1161., 2000
BioOne

Krafsur, E.S. and J.J. Obrycki. 2000. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a species complex. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93(5): 1156-1161.

Abstract

Coleomegilla maculata De Geer is an abundant, widely distributed, New World polyphagous lady beetle. High levels of variation at 14 polymorphic allozyme loci were used to examine breeding structure of populations from New England, Iowa, south Texas, and Honduras. Analysis of variance of gene frequencies and F-statistics showed high levels of gene flow within each region and between the Texan and northern United States populations, but negligible rates of gene flow between these and the Honduran populations.

Reproductive incompatibility between two subspecies of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Perez, O.G. and M.A. Hoy.
Florida Entomologist 85(1): 203-207., 2002
Link to full text

Perez, O.G. and M.A. Hoy. 2002. Reproductive incompatibility between two subspecies of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Florida Entomologist 85(1): 203-207.

Abstract

There is interest in introducing the midwestern subspecies of Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), C. m. lengi Timberlake, as a biological control agent for augmentation programs in Florida. The Division of Plant Industry (DPI) of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has prohibited the release of [i]C.

The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota
By Stehr, W.C. 1930.
Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta., St.Paul, 1930
Stehr, W.C. 1930. The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota. Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 75. 54 pp.

Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids.
By Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd.
Biological Control 51: 306–312., 2009
Full PDF

Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd. 2009. Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids. Biological Control 51(2): 306–312.

Abstract
We review aspects of the life histories of representative enemies of coccinellids (both entomophagous and phytophagous species) and expose both potential and real effects that they have on life parameters of their hosts. Lady beetles are attacked by a variety of natural enemies (bacteria, fungi, mites, nematodes, protozoa, wasps, flies). Few of these enemies have the ability to alter significantly the population dynamics of their hosts. This review should encourage further research to help define the role of natural enemies in the population dynamics of coccinellids. Ultimately, the conservation of beneficial lady beetles and the management of nuisance and pestiferous ones should be major emphases of research on coccinellid–natural enemy interactions.

Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera.
By Evans, E.W.
Biological Control 51: 255-267., 2009
Full PDF

Evans, E.W. 2009. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control 51: 255-267.

(Or: Evans, E.W. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control (2009), doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.011)

Abstract:

Entomophagous lady beetles often prey on a variety of insects in addition to the Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha) for which they are well-known natural enemies. Many species (particularly those well-adapted for consuming aphids) appear opportunistic in their use of non-hemipteran prey.

Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae.
By Lundgren, J.G.
Biological Control 51(2): 294–305., 2009
Full PDF

Lundgren, J.G. 2009. Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 294–305.

Abstract (part):

Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation, and fungus. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortality during diapause, fuel migration, and enhance reproductive capacity.

Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae).
By Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds).
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp., 2012
Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds). 2012. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp.

from publisher's website:

Ladybirds are probably the best known predators of aphids and coccids in the world, though this greatly underestimates the diversity of their biology. Maximising their impact on their prey is an important element in modern conservation biological control of indigenous natural enemies in contrast to the classical approach of releasing alien species.

Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Denemark, E. and J. Losey.
Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88., 2010
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Denemark, E. and J. Losey. 2010. Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88.

Abstract.—We searched for and collected data on a phenomenon known as ladybug washups, in which large numbers of coccinellids aggregate on the shores of major bodies of water. Our field season lasted from 5/23/2008 until 8/12/2008 in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, United States.

 
 
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