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Family Cecidomyiidae - Gall Midges and Wood Midges

fly Gall Midges (Cecidomyiinae) emerging from galls box elder midrib gall - Contarinia undescribed-species-on-boxelder Hickory gall  - Caryomyia subulata Fly IMG_5982 Female gall midge? Angelic midge! - Haplusia rubra Large orange gall midge with hairy wings - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Nematocera" (Non-Brachycera))
Infraorder Bibionomorpha (Gnats, Gall Midges, and March Flies)
Superfamily Sciaroidea (Fungus Gnats and Gall Midges)
Family Cecidomyiidae (Gall Midges and Wood Midges)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Itonididae
taxonomy here is adopted from Gagné & Jaschhof 2021 (1) who have expanded the family from the traditional 2-3 subfamilies to six
Explanation of Names
Cecidomyiidae Newman 1835
Numbers
Well over 1000 described species in ~190 genera in our area(2), ~6300 species in ~760 genera worldwide(3)(4); actual numbers are expected to be much higher: the estimated Canadian fauna alone contains ~1600 species(5)
Size
1-5 mm (some up to 8 mm)(2)
Identification
Minute, delicate flies with long legs and usually relatively long antennae, and with reduced wing venation(6)
Food
Most are gall makers. Others feed on plants. A few live on decaying matter, some are predators, a few, parasitic; some live as ant/termite inquilines(2)
Life Cycle
in several genera, larvae reproduce (paedogenesis); this seems to be restricted to fungus-feeding forms(2)
Remarks
the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat; another pest is the midge of red clover Dasineura leguminicola. Among the ones that feed on aphids Aphidoletes aphidimyza is used as a biocontrol. Some species may reproduce without reaching the adult stage (paedogenesis)(7)
Print References
(8)(9)