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Genus Cycloneda - Spotless Lady Beetles

 
 
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Larval systematics of North American Cycloneda Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
By Robert Gordon and Natalia Vandenberg
Insect Systematics and Evolution, vol. 28, no. 3, 1993
Invaluable aid for identifying 4th-instar larvae of Cycloneda lady beetles. Key to the three North American species; detailed description, line drawings, and microscopic photos of each species; discussion on separating these three species from a related Central American Cycloneda, and of the Cycloneda genus from other lady beetle larvae.

Sold online for $25 at a scientific research Web site:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/brill/ise/1993/00000024/00000003/art00004

With this key, I find it easier to identify the larvae of Cycloneda munda, C. polita, and C. sanguinea than the adults!

The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota
By Stehr, W.C. 1930.
Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta., St.Paul, 1930
Stehr, W.C. 1930. The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota. Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 75. 54 pp.

An annotated and updated species list of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of South Dakota
By Hesler L.S., Kieckhefer R.W.
Col. Bull. 62: 443-454, 2008

A list of the lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of North Dakota with new records from North Dakota and Minnesota
By Fauske G.M., Tinerella P.P., Rider D.A.
J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 76: 38-46, 2003

Key to lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Saskatchewan
By Larson D.J.
Ent. Soc. Saskatchewan. 37 pp., 2013

Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids.
By Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd.
Biological Control 51: 306–312., 2009
Full PDF

Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd. 2009. Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids. Biological Control 51(2): 306–312.

Abstract
We review aspects of the life histories of representative enemies of coccinellids (both entomophagous and phytophagous species) and expose both potential and real effects that they have on life parameters of their hosts. Lady beetles are attacked by a variety of natural enemies (bacteria, fungi, mites, nematodes, protozoa, wasps, flies). Few of these enemies have the ability to alter significantly the population dynamics of their hosts. This review should encourage further research to help define the role of natural enemies in the population dynamics of coccinellids. Ultimately, the conservation of beneficial lady beetles and the management of nuisance and pestiferous ones should be major emphases of research on coccinellid–natural enemy interactions.

Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera.
By Evans, E.W.
Biological Control 51: 255-267., 2009
Full PDF

Evans, E.W. 2009. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control 51: 255-267.

(Or: Evans, E.W. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control (2009), doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.011)

Abstract:

Entomophagous lady beetles often prey on a variety of insects in addition to the Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha) for which they are well-known natural enemies. Many species (particularly those well-adapted for consuming aphids) appear opportunistic in their use of non-hemipteran prey.

Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae.
By Lundgren, J.G.
Biological Control 51(2): 294–305., 2009
Full PDF

Lundgren, J.G. 2009. Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 294–305.

Abstract (part):

Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation, and fungus. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortality during diapause, fuel migration, and enhance reproductive capacity.

 
 
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