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Family Hybosoridae - Scavenger Scarab Beetles

Id request - Germarostes globosus Infested beetle - Germarostes globosus Scavenger scarab beetle - Hybosorus illigeri Pill Scarab Beetle - Germarostes globosus Scavenger Scarab Beetle? - Germarostes Small black beetle - Hybosorus illigeri Possiblly Hybosorus illigeri? - Hybosorus illigeri Germarostes? - Germarostes
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea
Family Hybosoridae (Scavenger Scarab Beetles)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
The ceratocanthines and hybosorids were traditionally treated as subfamilies of the Scarabaeidae; both were treated as separate families in(1) but are now combined (Ocampo 2006)
Explanation of Names
Hybosoridae Erichson 1847
Numbers
5 spp. in 4 genera of 3 subfamilies in our area, ~600 spp. in ~70 genera of 5 subfamilies worldwide(2)
Our fauna:
Hybosorinae: Hybosorus illigeri, so. US (SC-CA)
Pachyplectrinae: Pachyplectrus laevis, sw. US
Ceratocanthinae:
Ceratocanthus aeneus, se. US
Germarostes (Germarostes) 2 spp., e. US & so.ON
Size
3-7 mm
Identification
The mandibles projecting in front of clypeus and the antenna with 'cupped' club or can roll into distinct ball [Ceratocanthinae]
Larvae described in(3)
Antennomeres of antennal club capable of being closed together. Antennal club with 3 antennomeres, first hollowed out to receive second.
Print References
(4)
Works Cited
1.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
2.Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles (by Brett Ratcliffe and Mary Liz Jameson)
3.Larvae of Ceratocanthidae and Hybosoridae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea): study of morphology, phylogenetic analysis...
Grebennikov V.V., Ballerio A., Ocampo F.C., Scholtz C.H. 2004. Systematic Entomology 29: 524–543.
4.Phylogenetic analysis of the scarab family Hybosoridae and monographic revision of the New World subfamily Anaidinae...
Ocampo F.C. 2006. Bull. U. Nebraska State Mus. 19. 210pp.