Eurasia, Africa; spread with trade worldwide(2); in Canada adults of the diploid form have been found in NS-ON & BC; triploid females, in Montreal and Toronto(3)(4); much of the US (NY-GA to WI-KS-CA)(1)
The diploid form is found under natural conditions in the nests of wasps, birds, and rats, as well as in warehouses; the triploid form has been found mainly in warehouses, where it lives in close association with the bisexual form(3)
females of the parthenogenetic form must mate with males of the sexual form to reproduce or, less successfully, with males of P. pusillus or P. fur (sperm activates the egg but does not contribute any chromosomes)(3)
Females exist in two forms: diploid (sexual) and triploid (parthenogenetic)(3)
Contributed by v belov on 11 January, 2014 - 2:18pm Last updated 11 March, 2015 - 7:46am
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