Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Species Aspidiotus destructor - Coconut Scale


Scale insects of Northeastern North America. Identification, biology, and distribution.
By Michael Kosztarab
Virginia Museum of Natural History, 1996
« Designed to help users of all types with the identification task, this book contains a complete series of keys to guide the user from the correct family to the specific genus and species. Over 340 in-depth descriptions of families, genera, and species are included. Most species descriptions are accompanied by full-page line drawings. Color photographs of 32 common pest species supplement 263 large-scale drawings. »

Phylogeny and higher classification of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea)
By Gullan P.J., Cook L.G.
Zootaxa 1668: 413–425, 2007

The Scale Insects of California. Parts 1-3.
By Raymond J. Gill
Sacramento, Calif. : Analysis and Identification Branch, Division of Plant Industry, California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, 1988
The three parts (separate publications) are:

The scale insects of California. Part 1, The soft scales (Homoptera:Coccoidea:Coccidae). 1988.

The scale insects of California. Part 2: The minor families (Homoptera:Coccoidea) : Margarodidae, Ortheziidae, Kermesidae, Asterolecaniidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Cerococcidae, Aclerdidae, Kerriidae, Dactylopiidae, Eriococcidae, and Phoenicococcidae. 1993.

The scale insects of California. Part 3: The armored scales (Homoptera:Coccoidea:Diaspididae). 1997.

Recent adventive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) in Florida and the Caribbean region
By Stocks I.
In: Potential invasive pests of agricultural crops. Peña J.E., ed. CABI International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 342-362, 2013

Hemiptera of Canada
By Foottit R.G., Maw H.E.L., Kits J.H., Scudder G.G.E.
ZooKeys 819: 277-290, 2019
Full text

i wish resources and projects of this scope covering the US territory were available

Insect herbivores of 12 milkweed (Asclepias) species.
By Betz, R.F., W.R. Rommel & J.J. Dichtl.
Pp. 7-19. In: C. Warwick (ed.). Proceedings of the 15th North American Prairie Conference, Natural Areas Association, Bend, OR., 2000
Full PDF

Betz, R.F., W.R. Rommel & J.J. Dichtl. 2000. Insect herbivores of 12 milkweed (Asclepias) species, Pp. 7-19. In: C. Warwick (ed.). Proceedings of the Fifteenth North American Prairie Conference, Natural Areas Association, Bend, OR.

Checklist of the Hemiptera of British Columbia
By Maw H.E.L.
working document, 2011
updated from(1)

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Biologia Centrali-Americana: Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera-Homoptera
By William Lucas Distant et al. (1880-1909)
Bernard Quaritch Limited, London, 1880
Direct link to all plates:

Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Volume I (1880-1893) by William Lucas Distant
Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Volume II (1897-1901) by George Charles Champion

Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Homoptera. Volume I (1881-1905) by W. L. Distant and William Weekes Fowler
Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Homoptera. Volume II, Part 1 (1894-1909) by W. W. Fowler and T. D. A. Cockerell
Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Homoptera. Volume II , Part 2 (1899) by Theodore Dru Alison