Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Proper spelling of species name, based on rules of Zoological Nomenclature, should probably be "brevicaudus", though the name has rarely appeared in literature this way.
3 subspecies: brevicauda, bretonensis, gaspeensis
Adult: wings rounded, black, crossed by double row of yellow spots, often with an orange wash; hindwing has red-orange eye-spot with black center; tails generally quite short
Larva: early instars brown with white saddle, resembling a bird dropping; later instars have green-and-black bands with yellow dots in the black, appearing paler than most P. polyxenes larvae
maritime provinces of Canada: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and eastern Quebec along southern shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence
gardens near larval foodplants; coastal areas along grassy clifftops and rocky beaches; inland meadows and mountainous areas close to the treeline
adults fly from mid-June to end of July
larvae feed on cow-parsnip (Heracleum spp.), Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea), and Scotch Lovage (Ligusticum scoticum)
Molecular studies imply that P. brevicauda might be a subspecies of P. machaon.
is the only similar species within its range; it has longer tails, more pointed wings, and has not been recorded in Newfoundland (according to CBIF
pinned adult images
plus description, distribution map, subspecies, similar species, foodplants, flight season, habits (Butterflies of Canada, CBIF)