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Species Xanthippus corallipes - Red-shanked Grasshopper

Red-shanked Grasshopper - Xanthippus corallipes Very Large Reddish Grasshopper - Xanthippus corallipes - female Unidentified grasshopper - Xanthippus corallipes - female Red-shanked Grasshopper - Xanthippus corallipes - female Lubber - Xanthippus corallipes - female Acrididae - Xanthippus corallipes? - Xanthippus corallipes - female Xanthippus corallipes - male Xanthippus corallipes - male
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids)
Suborder Caelifera (Grasshoppers)
Family Acrididae (Short-horned Grasshoppers)
Subfamily Oedipodinae (Band-winged Grasshoppers)
Tribe Hippiscini
Genus Xanthippus
Species corallipes (Red-shanked Grasshopper)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Xanthippus corallipes (Haldeman)
Orig. Comb: Oedipoda corallipes Haldeman, 1852. Type locality: Valley of Great Salt Lake, Utah

Syns:
Oedipoda pardalina Saussure, 1861. Type locality: Mexico
Oedipoda paradoxa Thomas, 1872. Type locality: between Ogden and Smithfield, Utah [printed original description seems to be of Pardalophora haldemanii, or a combination of that species and X. corallipes; however, lectotype specimen is apparently referable to X. corallipes. Named "provisionally" in original publication, as the author was unsure of its distinctness from X. corallipes, as well as the distinctness of X. corallipes from P. haldemanii.]
Hippiscus corallipes (Haldeman) S.H. Scudder, 1876
Xanthippus leprosus Saussure, 1884. Type locality: Taos Valley, New Mexico
Xanthippus pardalinus (Saussure) Saussure, 1884
Xanthippus toltecus Saussure, 1884. Type locality: Mexico City, Mexico, Mexico
Xanthippus zapotecus Saussure, 1884. Type locatlity: Puebla, Mexico
Hippiscus rugosus paradoxus Blatchley, 1891 [probably based on a misinterpretation of the name]
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) affrictus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality [selected by Hebard, 1929]: Yuma, Arizona. Note: Scudder based this "species" on material from: "Upper Missouri and Yellowstone" [probably Montana]; "Dakota; Nevada; Utah; about Rangeley on the lower White River, western Colorado; Colorado, 5500', probably at eastern edge of foot-hills; and Yuma, Arizona". The bulk of the material (probably all) is referable to X. corallipes, and most is of the type that occurs in adjacent parts of the states of CO, ID, UT, & WY. Great Plains material is referable to ssp. latifasciatus. The lectotype of affrictus is of the same type as the bulk of the other material Scudder examined, and is clearly not really from Yuma in Arizona; there is reason to think that at some time before Scudder examined it, the label was switched on this specimen which musth have been collected much further northeast.
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) albulus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Prescott Mountain District, Arizona
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) altivolus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Mt. Lincoln, Colorado
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) conspicuus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Silver City, New Mexico
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) corallipes (Haldeman) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) cupidus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Pinal Mountains, Arizona
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) eremitus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Arizona
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) latifasciatus S.H. Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Calgary, Alberta
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) leprosus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) maculatus Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Pueblo, Colorado
Hippiscus (Hippiscus) pantherinus Scudder, 1892. Type locality: Pecos River, Texas [note: The assignment to sbg. Hippiscus was in error, due to misinterpretation of a character of the antennae.]
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) paradoxus (Thomas) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) pardalinus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) pumilus Scudder, 1892. Type locality: South Park, Colorado
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) toltecus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus (Xanthippus) zapotecus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder, 1892
Hippiscus conspicuus (S.H. Scudder) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus leprosus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus pantherinus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus pardalinus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus pumilus (S.H. Scudder) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus zapotecus (Saussure) S.H. Scudder & Cockerell, 1902
Hippiscus cupidus (S.H. Scudder) J.A.G. Rehn, 1904
Xanthippus affrictus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus albulus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus altivolus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus conspicuus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus cupidus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus eremitus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus latifasciatus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus leprosus (Saussure) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus maculatus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Pardalophora pantherinus (S.H. Scudder) W.F. Kirby, 1910 [note: erroneous generic placement]
Xanthippus toltecus (Saussure) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus zapotecus (Saussure) W.F. Kirby, 1910
Xanthippus corallipes albulus (S.H. Scudder) Hebard, 1925
Xanthippus corallipes corallipes (Haldeman) Hebard, 1925
Xanthippus corallipes latifasciatus (Haldeman) Hebard, 1925
Xanthippus paradoxa (Thomas) Hebard, 1927
Xanthippus corallipes altivolus (S.H. Scudder) Hebard, 1928
Xanthippus corallipes leprosus (Saussure) Hebard, 1928
Xanthippus corallipes buckelli Hebard, 1928. Type locality: Chilcotin District, British Columbia
Xanthippus corallipes maculatus (S.H. Scudder) Hebard, 1929
Xanthippus corallipes pantherinus (S.H. Scudder) Hebard, 1929
Xanthippus corallipes pardalinus (Saussure) Hebard, 1932
Xanthippus corallipes zapotecus (Saussure) Hebard, 1932
Xanthippus corallipes cupidus (S.H. Scudder) Hebard, 1935
Xanthippus corallipes miniatus Strohecker, 1952. Type locality: June Lake, California
Xanthippus corallipes brooksi Vickery, 1967. Type locality: Reindeer Depot,Mackenzie River Delta, NW Territories
?Xanthippus aquilonius Otte, 1984. Type locality: Vernon, British Columbia. Species level distinction from X. corallipes is uncertain.
?Xanthippus brooksi (Vickery) Otte, 1984. Species level distinction from X. corallipes is uncertain.
Explanation of Names
A widespread variable species that has been named several times, with most of the names having been originally placed within two or three different genera.
Identification
A highly variable stocky and usually large species, with much regional variation in size, wing length, and in the nature of the spot pattern of the body. Almost always with at least some red coloring on inner hind femur and the hind tibiae. The hind femur is broad with the lower flange distinctly wide. Rarely without a pair of narrow pale stripes along the top edge of both sides of the folded wings and usaully also the thorax. Wings have the dark band outside of the mid line of the wing with a long dark "spur" reaching toward the base near the costal margin. The wing disk is always yellow east and south of the Rockies, but west of the Great Plains and northward in western Canada may also be orange to red or occasionally deep pinkish. Orange-red to red is the predominant wing color in most of the Great Basin. The pronotum is usually nearly flat on top, rough and tubercled, and with the median carina low, twice cut, and often obliterated between the cuts. The lateral edge of the "metazona" (the rear portion of the pronotum behind the main transverse groove) is usually also angled and often has a bit of a ridge. The "lateral lobes" of the pronotum (the parts on the side of the thorax) usually have the front and back roughly parallel (sometimes narrowing a little downward, but rarely widening). There is usually distinct sculpturing on the face and between the eyes that is made up of raised ridges (many related species have these areas much smoother).
Range
Depends on what is included within the species, versus what is separated out as a distinct species. In the broader sense, it ranges through grasslands and deserts from se. Alaska, the Arctic coast (nw. corner of the NW Territories & proably the Yukon) south into central Mexico and from California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia eastward into southern Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Map - OSF
Habitat
Grasslands from subtropical to Boreal and Arctic, and less severe deserts, almost entirely where there is at least some freezing in winter.
Season
mostly Apr-Aug, but yr round in AZ (BG data)
Life Cycle
Varies somewhat with latitude, and some details might be debated. Eggs hatch in summer or autumn, and partly grown nymphs overwinter. Adults mature in spring, but the timing varies. Usually very early at lower elevations (below about 5000 or 6000 ft) at middle latitudes, but progressively later as one moves into Boreal and Mountain regions (due to the later onset of warm weather) and often later at southern latitudes (why is not obvious). Often snow can still fly when these insects are already mature. Usually the first adults appear in April, May, or June (sometimes earlier, rarely later), and live for on average 4 to 6 weeks. In southern grasslands (south from Kansas, Colorado, and Utah) adults often live very long lives and have been found surviving well into autumn and even early winter.
It is reported that this species goes through two winters as eggs before hatching, but this may be only in northern and high elevation regions, and it may vary with rainfall patterns as well. Many Grasshoppers (though largely unreported as being able to do so) seem to be able to live many years as eggs in the soil, with eggs that were produced in different years sometimes hatching en-mass together when conditions are particularly favorable. Some years (or series of years) a species may be totally absent from a region; eggs must be present but just do not hatch in those years. This species seems to be one of many in the West that may be uncommon or even absent from a region for stretches of years, only to suddenly appear by the thousands in a single year. It seems likely that many eggs have waited for several or even many years until the "right" year to hatch.
See Also
According to David J. Ferguson's comment here, The main distinction is that Xanthippus usually has the crest of the pronotum notched twice, and Pardalophora once.
Internet References