Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Gryllus firmus Scudder 1902
Where found with G. pennsylvanicus north from Virginia, distinguished by longer ovipositor, often more brownish or reddish coloring on wings legs, and ventrally on body and head. Usually the cerci are brownish with a white ring at base, and ovipositor is often brownish or with a pale stripe. The head of the males averages proportionately larger. Found in sand habitats. No single character serves to distinguish the two, and populations of G. pennsylvanicus found further north and inland on sand often look similar, while more southern populations of G. firmus tend to have shorter ovipositors. Where habitats meet, the two often occur together. They tend to remain behaviorally segregated and distinct, but intermediates are often common.
More study is needed to properly delimit these species, and it may turn out that yet more sibling races or species are involved. In particular, populations on sand and other distinctive habitats need study everywhere, not just near the coast.
East Coastal states from Connecticut south to Mexico (but similar populations found on sand inland into the Midwest and north to Maine may be related).
Overwinters primarily as eggs, with adults from late spring to frost. Some eggs may hatch in late summer or autumn, overwintering as young nymphs, with some adults maturing in spring. In Florida and south Georgia, all stages may be found at all seasons.
Very closely similar to Gryllus pennsylvanicus and basically replacing it near the coast. Perhaps a regional subspecies of that species, since the two "hybridize" where they meet. Songs and behaviors are similar.