Infraorder Culicomorpha - Mosquitoes and Midges
Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. of the Nearctic RegionBy Gail Grodhaus
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 1987
Full citation: "Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Nearctic Region", Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60:167-247 (Apr. 1987).
A review of the known species of Endochironomus
and related genera.
The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas.By Chung et al.
JAMA, 310(3): 297-307., 2013
Chung WM, Buseman CM, Joyner SN, Hughes SM, Fomby TB, Luby JP, Haley RW. (2013) The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas. JAMA, 310(3): 297-307.
After progressive declines over recent years, in 2012 West Nile virus epidemics resurged nationwide, with the greatest number of cases centered in Dallas County, Texas.
The investigation identified 173 cases of WNND, 225 of West Nile fever, 17 West Nile virus-positive blood donors, and 19 deaths in 2012. The incidence rate for WNND was 7.30 per 100,000 residents in 2012, compared with 2.91 per 100,000 in 2006, the largest previous Dallas County outbreak. An unusually rapid and early escalation of large numbers of human cases closely followed increasing infection trends in mosquitoes. The Cx quinquefasciatus
species-specific vector index predicted the onset of symptoms among WNND cases 1 to 2 weeks later...
Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland.By Tun-Lin et al.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37., 2000
W. Tun-Lin, T.R. Burkot and B.H. Kay. 2000. Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
in north Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37.
Immature development times, survival rates and adult size (wing-lengths) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti
(L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied in the laboratory at temperatures of 10–40°C. The duration of development from egg eclosion (hatching of the first instar) to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 7.2 ± 0.2 days at 35°C to 39.7 ± 2.3 days at 15°C. The minimum temperature threshold for development (t) was determined as 8.3 ± 3.6°C and the thermal constant (K) was 181.2 ± 36.1 day-degrees above the threshold. Maximum survival rates of 88–93% were obtained between 20 and 30°C. Wing-length was inversely related to temperature. The sex ratio (♀:♂) was 1 : 1 at all temperatures tested (15, 20, 25 and 35°C) except 30°C (4 : 3).
Pandemic dengue in Caribbean countries and the southern United States — Past, present and potential problems.By Ehrenkranz et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469., 1971
N Engl J Med
N. Joel Ehrenkranz, M.D., Arnoldo K. Ventura, Ph.D., Raul R. Cuadrado, Dr.P.H., William L. Pond, Ph.D., and John E. Porter, Ph.D. 1971. Pandemic Dengue in Caribbean Countries and the Southern United States — Past, Present and Potential Problems. The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469.
THE outbreaks of dengue in the Caribbean area in 1963–64 and 1968–691 have served as reminders of the continuing presence of dengue in the Western Hemisphere, and the threat of recurrence of epidemic dengue in the southern United States.