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Infraorder Culicomorpha - Mosquitoes and Midges

 
 
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Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. of the Nearctic Region
By Gail Grodhaus
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 1987
Full citation: "Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Nearctic Region", Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60:167-247 (Apr. 1987).

A review of the known species of Endochironomus and related genera.

On JSTOR.

The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas.
By Chung et al.
JAMA, 310(3): 297-307., 2013
PubMed

Chung WM, Buseman CM, Joyner SN, Hughes SM, Fomby TB, Luby JP, Haley RW. (2013) The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas. JAMA, 310(3): 297-307.

Abstract
After progressive declines over recent years, in 2012 West Nile virus epidemics resurged nationwide, with the greatest number of cases centered in Dallas County, Texas.

RESULTS:
The investigation identified 173 cases of WNND, 225 of West Nile fever, 17 West Nile virus-positive blood donors, and 19 deaths in 2012. The incidence rate for WNND was 7.30 per 100,000 residents in 2012, compared with 2.91 per 100,000 in 2006, the largest previous Dallas County outbreak. An unusually rapid and early escalation of large numbers of human cases closely followed increasing infection trends in mosquitoes. The Cx quinquefasciatus species-specific vector index predicted the onset of symptoms among WNND cases 1 to 2 weeks later...

West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior.
By Kilpatrick et al.
PLoS Biol. 4(4): e82., 2006
Full Text

Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P. 2006. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PLoS Biol. 4(4): e82.

Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in North America since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. Understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics.

Culex nigripalpus: seasonal shift in the bird-mammal feeding ratio in a mosquito vector of human encephalitis.
By Edman JD, Taylor DJ.
Science 161(3836): 67-68., 1968
PubMed

Edman JD, Taylor DJ. 1968. Culex nigripalpus: seasonal shift in the bird-mammal feeding ratio in a mosquito vector of human encephalitis. Science 161(3836): 67-68.

Abstract
Blood-engorged Culex nigripalpus (Theob.) collected throughout the year in two Florida localities were serologically tested to determine the host range of this mosquito in nature. A proportional increase in feeding on mammals occurred in early summer, reached a maximum between July and October, and was followed by a shift back to avian hosts which dominated the feeding pattern during winter and spring.

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the continental United States: a vector at the cool margin of its geographic range.
By Eisen L, Moore CG.
Journal of Medical Entomology 50(3): 467-78., 2013
Full Text

Eisen L, Moore CG. 2013. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the continental United States: a vector at the cool margin of its geographic range. Journal of Medical Entomology 50(3): 467-78.

U.S. range of Ae. aegypti

Counties in the continental United States with collection records of Ae. aegypti from 1986 to 2010 (shaded red), based on information from a database for invasive mosquito species curated by C. G. Moore of Colorado State University.

Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland.
By Tun-Lin et al.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37., 2000
Abstract

W. Tun-Lin, T.R. Burkot and B.H. Kay. 2000. Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37.

Immature development times, survival rates and adult size (wing-lengths) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied in the laboratory at temperatures of 10–40°C. The duration of development from egg eclosion (hatching of the first instar) to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 7.2 ± 0.2 days at 35°C to 39.7 ± 2.3 days at 15°C. The minimum temperature threshold for development (t) was determined as 8.3 ± 3.6°C and the thermal constant (K) was 181.2 ± 36.1 day-degrees above the threshold. Maximum survival rates of 88–93% were obtained between 20 and 30°C. Wing-length was inversely related to temperature. The sex ratio (♀:♂) was 1 : 1 at all temperatures tested (15, 20, 25 and 35°C) except 30°C (4 : 3).

Effects of different temperature regimens on the development of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.
By Mohammed, A., and D.D. Chadee.
Acta Tropica 119: 38–43., 2011
Full PDF

Azad Mohammed, Dave D. Chadee. 2011. Effects of different temperature regimens on the development of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Acta Tropica 119: 38–43.

This study was conducted to determine the effects of increased water temperatures on the development of Aedes aegypti immatures under laboratory conditions in Trinidad, West Indies using temperature regulated water baths to cover a range of temperatures from 24–25◦C to 34–35◦C at a relative humidity of 80%.

Pandemic dengue in Caribbean countries and the southern United States — Past, present and potential problems.
By Ehrenkranz et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469., 1971
N Engl J Med

N. Joel Ehrenkranz, M.D., Arnoldo K. Ventura, Ph.D., Raul R. Cuadrado, Dr.P.H., William L. Pond, Ph.D., and John E. Porter, Ph.D. 1971. Pandemic Dengue in Caribbean Countries and the Southern United States — Past, Present and Potential Problems. The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469.

THE outbreaks of dengue in the Caribbean area in 1963–64 and 1968–691 have served as reminders of the continuing presence of dengue in the Western Hemisphere, and the threat of recurrence of epidemic dengue in the southern United States.

 
 
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